Syllabus of Environmental Law
TABLE OF CONTENTS
UNIT 1: INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW 15 LECTURES)
Development of international environmental law, nature and scope of key international environmental law principles and rights (substantive and procedural) U.N. Conference on Human Environment, 1972 – Stockholm Principles, Establishment of Environmental Institutions like UNEP, World Charter for Nature, 1982; Ozone Protection – Montreal Protocol for the Protection of Ozone Layer, 1987 as amended; U.N. Conference on Environment and Development, 1992 – Rio Principles; U.N. Convention on Biological Diversity, 1992; Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, 2000; U.N. Convention on Climate Change1992, Kyoto Protocol, 1997; Forest Principles; Agenda 21; Human Right to Healthy Environment; Convention on Access to Information, Public Participation in Decision-making and Access to Justice in Environmental Matters, 1998 (Aarhus Convention); Johannesburg Conference, 2002; Rio+20-United Nations Conference on Sustainable Development, Paris Agreement, 2015
Trail Smelter Arbitration (United State/Canada), 3 U.N. Rep. Int’l Arb. Awards 1905 (1941).
Case Concerning the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros Project (Hungary/Slovakia), International Court of Justice, Judgment of 25 September 1997 (separate opinion of Vice-President Weeramantry)
Case Concerning Pulp Mills on the River Uruguay (Argentina/Uruguay), International Court of Justice, Judgment of 20 April 2010..
UNIT 2: FUNDAMENTAL PRINCIPLES OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION 15 LECTURES)
Development v. Environment; Sustainable Development-Inter-generational and Inter-generational Equity; Precautionary Principle; Polluter Pays Principle; Public Trust Doctrine; Community rights
Indian Council for Enviro-Legal Action v. Union of India, AIR 1996 SC 1446
Indian Council for Enviro-Legal Action v. Union of India, (2011) 12 SCC 768
Vellore Citizens Welfare Forum v. Union of India, AIR 1996 SC 2715
Narmada Bachao Andolan v. Union of India, AIR 2000 SC 3751
Intellectuals Forum, Tirupathi v. State of A.P., AIR 2006 SC 1350.
Jitendra Singh v. Ministry of Environment & Ors., Supreme Court, Civil Appeal No. 5109/2019, decided on 25 November 2019
UNIT 3: CONSTITUTIONAL PERSPECTIVE [5 LECTURES].
Fundamental Rights – Article 14 (Right to equality, non-arbitr ary and non-discriminatory treatment), Article 19(1)(g) (Freedom to carry on trade or business), Article 21 (Right to life, livelihood and wholesome environment) and Article 32 (Right to Constitutional remedies); Directive Principles of State Policy – Article 47, 48-A; Fundamental Duty – Article 51-A(g); Article 226 (Powers of High Courts); Public Interest Litigation – Nature – Non-Adversarial, Collaborative, Co-operative and Investigative; Locus Standi – Pro Bono Publico; Representative Standing; Citizens’ Standing
Subhash Kumar v. State of Bihar, AIR 1991 SC 420
Rural Litigation and Entitlement Kendra v. State of U.P., (1985) 2 SCC 431
M.C. Mehta v. Union of India, AIR 1997 SC 734
M.C. Mehta v. Kamal Nath, (1997) 1 SCC 388
M.C. Mehta v. Kamal Nath, AIR 2000 SC 1997
M.C. Mehta v. Kamal Nath, 2002 (2) SCALE 654
Sachidanand Pandey v. State of West Bengal, AIR 1987 SC 1109
UNIT 4: PREVENTION AND CONTROL OF WATER AND AIR POLLUTION [5 LECTURES]
The Water (Prevention and Con trol of Pollution) Act, 1974 – Wa t er Pollution – Meaning; Central and State Pollution Control Boards –Constitution, Powers and Functions; Water Pollution Control Areas; Samples of Eﬄuents – Procedure; Cons ent Requirement – Procedure, Grant/Refusal, Withdrawal, Review, Appeals, Revision ; Restraint Order; Citizen Suit Provision; Oﬀences and Penalties; The Water Cess (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1977
The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981- Air Pollution – Meaning, Causes and Eﬀects; Central and State Pollution Control Boards – Functions; Air Pollution Control Area; Consent Requirement – Procedure, Grant/Refusal, Withdrawal; Restraint Orders; Citizen Suits; Noise Pollution (Regulation and Control) Rules, 2000; Oﬀences/Penalties; Vehicular pollution
M.C. Mehta v. Union of India, AIR 1988 SC 1037
M.C. Mehta v. Union of India, AIR 1988 SC 1115
M/s Delhi Bottling Co. Pvt. Ltd. v. Central Board for the Prevention and Control of
Water Pollution, AIR 1986 Del. 152
Municipal Council, Ratlam v. Vardichand, (1980) 4 SCC 162..
State of M.P. v. Kedia Leather & Liquor Ltd., AIR 2003 SC 3236
Forum Prevention of Envn. & Sound Pollution v. Union of India, AIR 2005 SC 3136 179
Church of God (Full Gospel) in India v. KKR Majestic Welfare Colony Welfare
Association, AIR 2000 SC 2773..
UNIT 5: ENVIRONMENTAL PRO TECTION [5 LECTURES]
The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 – Aims and Objects; Meaning of “Environment” and “Environmental Pollutant”; Powers and Functions of the Central Government; Environment Authority – Constitution; Delegation of Powers; Oﬀences/Penalties; Eﬀectiveness of the Act; Environmental Impact Assessment, 2006; Environmental Audit; law relating to hazardous substance and activities —issues of liabilit
Jagannath v. Union of India, AIR 1997 SC 811
HAZARDOUS SUBSTNACES AND ACTIVITIES
MC Mehta v Union of India, 1987 AIR 1086 (Oleum Gas Leak case)
Union Carbide Corporation v Union of India, AIR 1992 SC 248
UNIT 6: NATIONAL GREEN T RIBUNAL [3 LECTURES]
Powers and functions of the National Green Tribunal; jurisdiction; locus standi, remedies, Powers and functions; jurisdiction; locus standi, remedies
Techi Tagi Tara v. Rajendra Singh Bhandari & Ors, Supreme Court, Civil Appeal No.1359/017, Judgement of 22 September 2017
UNIT 7: PROTECTION AND CONSERVATION OF FORESTS, BIODIVERSITY AND WILDLIFE [5 LECTURES]
The Indian Forest Act, 1927; The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980; Kinds of Forest Land -Private, Reserved, Village, Protected; Use of Forest Land for Non-Forest purposes; Rights of Tribals and Forest Dwellers—The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006
The Biological Diversity Act, 2002—access to biological resources and benefit sharing; Regulation of genetically modified organisms; The Manufacture, Use, Import, Export and Storage of Hazardous Micro-Organisms Genetically Engineered Organisms or Cells Rules, 1989.
Protection of Wildlife – the Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972; Sanctuaries and National Parks; Licensing of Zoos and Parks.
Orissa Mining Corporation v Ministry of Environmetn and Forest, (2013)6 SCC 476 ..
Sansar Chand v State of Rajasthan, 2010 (10) SCC 604
Centre For Environmental Law, WWF-I v. Union of India & Others, Supreme Court, I.A.No. 100 in Writ Petition (Civil) No. 337 of 1995, decided on 15 April 2013 ……………
Divya Pharmacy v Union of India, High Court of Uttarakhand, WP 3437/2016, Decided on 21 December 2018
TN Godavarman Thirumulpad v Union of India—Shomona Khanna, ‘Boundaries of Forest Land: The Godavarman case and Beyond’, in Sharachchandra Lele & Ajit Menon eds., Democratizing Forest Governance in India 225 (Oxford University Press, 2014).
- The Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1974
- The Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act, 1981
- The Environment (Protection) Act, 1986
- The Public Liability Insurance Act, 1991
- The National Green Tribunal Act, 2010
- The Biological Diversity Act, 2002
- The Wildlife (Protection) Act, 1972
- The Forest (Conservation) Act, 1980
- The Indian Forest Act, 1927
- The Scheduled Tribes and Other Traditional Dwellers (Recognition of Forest Rights) Act, 2006.
Policies and reports
- The National Environment Policy, 2006
- The National Forest Policy, 1988
- The National Water Policy, 2012
- The Wildlife Conservation Strategy, 2002
- The World Commission on Environment and Development, Our Common Future, 1987
- IPCC Fifth Assessment Report (AR5). Synthesis Report: Climate Change 2014.
- Philippe Sands and Jacqueline Peel, Principles of International Environmental Law (4th ed., 2018).
- Shibani Ghosh ed., Indian Environmental Law: Key Concepts and Principles(2019).
- Geetanjoy Sahu, Environmental Jurisprudence and the Supreme Court: Litigation, Interpretation, Implementation (2014)
- Shyam Diwan and Armin Rosencranz, Environmental Law and Policy in India– Cases, Materials and Statutes (2nd ed., 2001)
- P. Leelakrishnan, Environmental Law Case Book (2nd ed., 2010)
- Gurdip Singh, Environmental Law in India (2nd ed 2016)
- P. Leelakrishnan, Environmental Law in India (5th ed., 2019)
- Stuart Bell & Donald Mc Gillivray, Environmental Law (7th ed., 2008)